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The Korean People's Army is the "revolutionary armed wing" of the Worker's Party as stated in Article 46 of the party constitution, with first and foremost loyalties to the party.朝鲜人民军是“革命武装派别”工人的党,正如在第46条规定,党章,与首要的忠诚向党。 The Korean People's Army was established on Feb. 08, 1948.朝鲜人民军成立于1948年2月8日。 Kdx?s;i  
The KPA is the vanguard of the Korean revolution,the revolutionary armed forces of the Workers Party Of Korea.朝鲜人民军是先锋队,朝鲜革命,革命武装力量部的朝鲜劳动党。 The Army-First/Songun idea was articulated by Leader KIM JONG IL, who declared that the choice was Army-first politics to maintain indepedence or become the colonial slaves of imperialism.该army-first/songun想法是阐明了国防委员长金正日,谁宣布的选择是先军政治,以维持indepedence或成为殖民地奴隶的帝国主义。 ;TMH.E,h:  
North Korea continues to position forces into the area just north of the DMZ— in a position to threaten Combined Forces Command and all of Seoul with little warning.朝鲜的立场,继续部队进入该地区以北的非军事区-在一个立场,威胁到联合司令部和所有的汉城与小警告。 Seventy percent of their active force, including approximately 700,000 troops, over 8,000 artillery systems, and 2,000 tanks, is postured within 90 miles of the Demilitarized Zone. 70 %的积极力量,其中包括大约七十万部队,超过8000火炮系统,坦克和2000年,是postured 90英里的非军事区。 This percentage continues to rise despite the June 2000 summit.这个百分比继续上升,尽管2000年6月首脑会议。 Most of this force in the forward area is protected in over 4,000 underground facilities, out of over 11,000 nationwide.大部分的这支部队在前沿地区,是保护在超过4000的地下设施,超过1.1万在全国范围内。 From their current locations, these forces can attack with minimal preparations or warning.从他们目前的位置,这些部队可以攻击与最小的筹备工作或警告。 The protracted southward deployment follows a tactic of “creeping normalcy”—a significant movement over a period of many years that would attract too much international attention if accomplished over weeks or months.长期南下部署如下的策略“逐渐恢复正常” -一个重要运动一个时期多年,会吸引太多的国际社会的关注,如果完成了超过数周或数月。 u~1[nH:  
According to remarks made by General LaPorte, commander USFK, during congressional testimony in March 2003 North Korea has for the past 10 or 12 years adapted its military on what the military leadership perceives as the strengths of the United States military.根据发表的言论一般拉波特,驻韩美军指挥官,在国会作证时在2003年3月,朝鲜在过去的10年或12年,适应其军事上有什么军事领导人感觉到作为强项,美国军方。 The KPA has adapted in several ways.朝鲜人民军已适应在几个方面。 First in terms of communications the North Korean military has developed an indigenous, frequency-hopping radio that allows soldiers to communicate in a secure mode.首先,在通讯,朝鲜军方已研制出一种土著,跳频电台,让官兵沟通,在一个安全的模式。 Fiber optics have been installed between fixed facilities.光纤已安装之间的固定设施。 And in attempt to protect its forces from US surveillance and air capabilities, the North Koreans have built a tremendous number of underground facilities throughout North Korea to protect leadership and critical forces.并在试图保护其部队从美国的监视和空中能力,朝鲜兴建了大量的地下设施,整个朝鲜,以保护领导和关键力量。 -Qiay/tlu  
Background背景 isDBNXV:  
Just after World War II and during the Soviet Union's occupation of the portion of Korea north of the 38th Parallel, the Soviet 25th Army headquarters in Pyongyang issued a statement ordering all armed resistance groups in the northern part of the peninsula to disband on Oct. 12, 1945.只是在第二次世界大战后,在苏联的占领部分韩国以北的三八线,苏联陆军总部25日在平壤发表声明,命令所有武装抵抗组织在北部的一部分,朝鲜半岛的解散, 10月12日, 1945 。 Two thousand Koreans with previous experience in the Soviet army were sent to various locations around the country to organize constabulary forces with permission from Soviet military headquarters, and the force was created on Oct. 21st. 2000韩国与以往的经验,在苏联军队,分别被送往不同的地点,该国各地举办constabulary势力与许可从苏联军事总部,和部队建立的10月21日。 0}PW?t76  
The headquarters felt a need for a separate unit for security around railways, and the formation of the unit was announced on Jan. 11, 1946.总部认为,需要有一个单独的单位,为周围的安全铁路,形成该单位宣布, 1946年1月11日。 That unit was activated on Aug. 15 of the same year to supervise existing security forces and creation of the national armed forces.该单位被激活,就8月15日的同一年,以监督现有的安全部队,并设立了全国武装力量。 #?!)-Q%  
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Military institutes such as the Pyongyang Academy (became No. 2 KPA Officers School in Jan. 1949) and the Central Constabulary Academy (became KPA Military Academy in Dec. 1948) soon followed for education of political and military officers for the new armed forces.军事院校,如平壤学院(第2号,成为人民军军官学校在1949年1月)和中央constabulary学院(成为朝鲜人民军军事科学院在1948年12月)尽快其次为教育的政治和军事人员,为新的武装部队。 (IIOKx_  
After military was organized and facilities to educate its new recruits were constructed, the Constabulary Discipline Corps was reorganized into the North Korean People's Army Corps Headquarters.之后,军事组织和设施,以教育其新入职的兴建, constabulary纪律兵团改编为朝鲜人民军兵团总部。 The previously semi-official units became military regulars with distribution of Soviet uniforms, badges, and weapons that followed the inception of the headquarters.以前的半官方单位,成为军事的常客与分布苏联制服,徽章和武器之后成立的总部。 Cg}cD.  
The State Security Department, a forerunner to the Ministry of Defense, was created as part of the Interim People's Committee on Feb. 4th, 1948.国家安全部,前身向国防部,是创造的一部分临时人民委员会的1948年2月4日。 The formal creation of the Korean People's Army was announced four days later on Feb. 8th, seven months before the government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was proclaimed on Sept. 09, 1948.正式创建了朝鲜人民军宣布,四天后在2月8日,七个月前,政府对人民民主共和国,韩国宣布在1948年9月9日。 !7AW_l9`i  
Over 90 percent of all KPA personnel -- more than 1 million troops -- are in the ground forces, the Korean People's Army.百分之九十以上的所有朝鲜人民军的人员-有1 00多万部队-是在地面部队,朝鲜人民军。 Ground forces in 1960 may have totalled fewer than 400,000 persons and probably did not rise much above that figure before 1972.地面部队在1960年可能有总额不少于40.0万人,大概没有引起多少以上,这个数字之前, 1972年。 The force expanded relentlessly over the next two decades; in 1992, there were approximately 1 million personnel.部队扩大,坚持不懈地在未来的20年间,在1992年,有大约一百万人。 The size, organization, disposition, and combat capabilities of the army give P'yongyang military options both for offensive operations to reunify the peninsula and for credible defensive operations against any perceived threat from South Korea.大小,组织,处置,和作战能力的军队,让平壤举行的军事选择既为进攻行动统一朝鲜半岛的和可信的防御性行动,打击任何威胁来自南韩。 Militaries that experience such growth also provide great upward mobility for their officers.军队的经验,这种增长还提供强大的向上流动,为他们的人员。 twNZ^=SGr  
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The army initially was organized along Chinese and Soviet concepts.军队最初是有组织沿中国和前苏联的概念。 Over time, this organization has adjusted to the unique circumstances of the military problem the KPA faces and to the evolution of North Korean military doctrine and thought.随着时间的推移,这个组织已调整,以独特情况的军事问题,朝鲜人民军所面临的和演变的北朝鲜的军事学说和思想。 @5acTY Q  
The North Korean military rank system consists of 21 levels: Generalissimo, marshal, inferior commander-in-chief; Senior general, general, center, major general; Senior colonel, colonel, lieutenant colonel, major; Senior captain, captain, first lieutenant, second lieutenant; Spy master sergeant, master sergeant, staff sergeant, corporal; Superior private, inferior soldier.朝鲜的军衔制度,组成21个层次: generalissimo ,元帅,劣势的总指挥官;高级将领,一般来说,中心,少将;大校,上校,中校,主要;高级队长,队长,中尉,少尉;间谍大师警长,掌握警长,上士,下士;优于私人,劣势士兵。 #2_phm'  
Each province has, independent of the collocated conventional geographic corps, a regional Military District Command dedicated to local defense, which controls predominantly reserve forces organized into divisions and brigades.每个省,独立的同位常规地理兵团,一个区域的军事区的指挥,专责当地的防御系统,控制为主的预备役部队组织成师旅。 The Military District Commands apparently were formed during a restructuring of the reserves during the 1980s.军事区的命令,显然形成了在一个转型的储备在20世纪80年代。 Their command structure is unclear, although they apparently control the local reserves, some regular forces, and coastal defense units.他们的指挥架构,目前还不清楚,虽然他们显然是控制当地的储备,一些正规部队,海防部队。 m,Q<4'  
In the 1980s, the mechanized infantry and armored and artillery forces were reorganized into new mechanized armored and artillery corps to implement the change in strategic thinking.在20世纪80年代,机械化步兵和装甲部队,炮兵部队被改编为新的机械化装甲部队,炮兵实施的改变战略思维。 This restructuring suggests that some infantry divisions were used to form the new mechanized forces and then reformed, and that a similar pattern apparently was used to reconstruct the armored corps.这表明,结构调整的一些步兵师被用来组成新的机械化的力量,然后改革,并认为类似的模式显然是用来重建装甲兵团。 zg)Z2?K|;u  
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Until 1986 most sources claimed the army had two armored divisions.直到1986年大多数消息来源称,军队有两个装甲师。 These divisions disappeared from the order of battle and were replaced by the armored corps and a doubling of the armored brigade count.这些分歧消失,从秩序的战役,并取代装甲兵团和增加一倍装甲旅计数。 In the mid-1980s, the heavy caliber self propelled artillery was consolidated into the first multibrigade artillery corps.在八十年代中期,大口径自行火炮合并为第一multibrigade炮兵。 At the same time, the restructured mobile exploitation forces were redeployed forward, closer to the DMZ.在同一时间内,重组的移动剥削势力的重新调配,展望未来,更接近非军事区。 The forward corps areas of operation were compressed although their internal organization appeared to remain basically the same.前进兵团领域的行动中,警方压缩,虽然他们的内部组织,似乎仍然基本上是相同的。 The deployment of the newly formed mechanized, armored, and artillery corps directly behind the first echelon conventional forces provides a potent exploitation force that did not exist prior to 1980.部署新成立的机械化,装甲部队,炮兵背后的直接第一梯队常规力量提供了一个强有力的开发力量,是不存在的前80年。 e]uk}#4  
As of 1992, the army was composed of sixteen corps commands, two separate special operations forces commands, and nine military district commands (or regions) under the control of the Ministry of the People's Armed Forces).截至1992年,军队组成的16团的命令,两个独立的特种作战部队命令,并在9区的军事命令(或地区)的控制之下,财政部,人民军队的) 。 Most sources agreed that North Korea's ground forces consisted of approximately 145 divisions and brigades, of which approximately 120 are active.最来源一致认为,朝鲜的地面部队构成的大约145个师旅,其中约有120名活跃。 There is less agreement, however, on the breakdown of the forces.有较少的协议,然而,就分项的力量。 JT[|l-\zo  
在1992年朝鲜之间分工传统的地理兵团。 The army's armored and mechanized corps, composed of independent combined arms brigades tailored to the restrictive terrain of the peninsula, are positioned along the avenues of approach as exploitation and counterattack forces.军队的装甲和机械化兵团,组成独立的联合武器旅调整,以适应地形的限制,朝鲜半岛,位置沿渠道的做法,剥削和反击力量。 mZ7.#R*}  
As of 1996 major combat units consisted of 153 divisions and brigades, including 60 infantry divisions/brigades, 25 mechanized infantry brigades, 13 tank brigades, 25 Special Operation Force (SOF) brigades and 30 artillery brigades.截至1996年的主要作战部队组成, 153师旅,包括60个步兵师/旅, 25个机械化步兵旅, 13个坦克旅, 25个特别行动部队(特种部队)旅和第30炮兵旅。 North Korea deployed ten corps including sixty divisions and brigades in the forward area south of the Pyongyang-Wonsan line.朝鲜部署了包括10兵团60师旅在前进以南地区的平壤-元山线。 B\KvKT|\  
As of 1996 the North Korean ground forces were composed of twenty corps commands including four mechanized and two artillery corps as well as a Tank Instruction Guidance Bureau and an Artillery Command, and one Light Infantry Instruction Guidance Bureau which controls special operations forces.截至1996年,朝鲜的地面部队分别组成的20团的命令,包括四个机械化和两个炮兵以及坦克教学语言指引局和一炮兵指挥,和一轻步兵教学语言指引局控制特种作战部队。 On the eastern front is deployed I Corps, V Corps on the central eastern front, II Corps on the central-western front, and IV Corps on the western front.在东部前线部署i兵团,第五兵团,中央对东部阵线,二团对中环至西部战线,和第四兵团对西部战线。 In the central and Pyongyang areas III, VII and IX Corps, and the Pyongyang Defense Command are deployed.在中部和平壤地区的第三,第七和第九兵团,和平壤防空司令部部署。 The VI, VIII, X and XI Corps are in the rear.在第六,第八,第十和第十一军团是在后方。 tE3!;  
The VIII Army Corps is in charge of protecting major military facilities in the central area, including a missile base located in the vicinity of P'yongyang.该第八军团是在负责保护的主要军事设施,在中部地区,包括导弹基地设在附近的平壤。 The North Korean Army established the VIII Army Corps, with the corps headquarters in Yomju County, North P'yongan Province, and assigned the corps to protect major military facilities in the central area of North Korea.朝鲜军设立了第八兵团,与兵团总部在盐州,县,北p'yongan省,并指派团,以保护主要军事设施,在中部地区的朝鲜。 NDC Chairman Kim Chong-il gave on-the-spot guidance to the VIII Army Corps, which is also called the Large Combined Unit No. 593, on 2 November 1998.北区区议会主席金正日对了-现场指导,以第八军团,也就是所谓的大联合组5 93号,于1 1月2日1 998年。 North Korea has disbanded the VIII Special Army Corps, which intensively trained agents for infiltration into the South and newly established the Light Infantry-Men Guidance Department of the early 1980s.朝鲜已解散了八,特别兵团,训练代理人渗透南部和新成立的轻步兵-男子指导部80年代初。 ud'r ?QDM  
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North Korea has organized a grand total of seven million men and women into reserve units.朝鲜已举办了隆重的,共有700.0万男性和女性进入预备役部队。 Reserve Military Training Unit, Worker-Peasant Militia, and the Young Red Guards make up most of the number.预备役军事训练的单位,工人,农民,民兵,青年红卫兵弥补大部分的数目。 The units are managed by the Party Civil Defense Department in peacetime, but are placed under the Ministry of Defense in contingencies.单位的管理,通过党的人防部门在平时,但被置于下国防部在突发事件。 War mobilization measures usually assign Reserve Military Training Unit to the front or regional defense in war, while the other two units are assigned to maintain security in the rear, guard duty for important facilities, etc. About 30% of all North Koreans between the ages fifteen to sixty are mobilized for reserve units:战争动员的措施,通常指派储备军事训练单位向前方或区域防御在战争中,而其他两个单位的指派,以维持安全的后方,民警卫队的责任的重要设施等,约30 %的所有朝鲜岁之间15 ,以六十〇顷动员预备役部队: Z7K ;~*  
The Reserve Military Training Unit consist of approximately 1.7 million persons (men 17-45 and unmarried women 17-30) who are not either in active duty or important rear area personnel.预备役军事训练单位组成的大约170万人(男17-45和未婚妇女17-30 )谁是也不是在现役或重要的大后方人员。 They are mobilized under supervision of provincial military units, for a total of forty days' training out of the year.他们动员的监督下,省军区部队,共计四十天的训练出来的年。 B6MMn.  
The Worker-Peasant Militia is a combination of older men aged 45-60, along with men ages 17-45 and unmarried women ages 17-30 who are not included in Reserve Military Training Unit.工人-农民民兵是结合老年人的男子,年龄45-60 ,随着男性年龄17-45和未婚妇女年龄17-30谁是不包括在军事训练的预备役部队。 They train for a total of thirty days out of the year.他们列车共三十天出于对年。 Their current numbers stand at 4.1 million.他们目前的人数站在4100000 。 }4#%0x`w  
The Young Red Guards consist of 1.2 million male and female Higher Middle (High) School students aged 14-16.年轻的红卫兵组成120.0万男性和女性较高的中(高中)学校的学生年龄14日至16日。 They are subject to a mandatory four-hour drill session every Saturday and a total of 160 hours of on-campus drills annually.他们受到一个强制性的4个小时的演习会议每星期六及共160小时的对校园演练一次。 A total of 450 hours of off-campus training is also mandatory.共450小时的校外培训,也是强制性的。 `cy_@Z5A  
Reserve Military Training Unit form the core of the reserves and are under the command of the Ministry of Defense in peace AND in wartime.预备役军事训练单位组成的核心部分,储备和指挥下的国防部,在平时和战时。 Party Civil Defense Departments keep track of the Worker-Peasant Militia and the Young Red Guards in peace time, but the Ministry of Defense in contingencies.党的人防部门跟踪工人-农民民兵和青年红卫兵在和平时期,但国防部在突发事件。 _;v4 ]MU  
North Korea's massive mechanized infantry and tank units, organized at corps and brigade levels and positioned in depth along the major routes of the attack line, are able to concentrate force on exploiting a breakthrough and enlarging the results of combat operations.朝鲜的大规模机械化步兵和坦克单位,组织团,旅各级和定位,深入沿线主要路线的攻击路线,是能够集中力量对利用突破和扩大的结果,作战行动。 The North Korean artillery units, protected in covered trenches and underground bases, can deliver deep fire support without exposure while their multiple rocket launchers are capable of concentrating fire support.朝鲜的炮兵部队,保护在所涵盖的战壕和地下基地,能提供深火力支援,没有曝光的同时,他们的多重火箭发射器,能够集中火力支援。 North Korea's river-crossing engineering forces armed with more than 600 amphibious vehicles and over 2,300 S-type floating bridge sections can transport troops and equipment for speedy river-crossing operations.朝鲜的跨河工程部队武装起来的600多名两栖车辆和超过2300 S型浮桥路段可以运输部队和装备迅速渡河作战。 ~-A5h(  
The army has an extensive facility hardening program.军队具有广泛的设施,硬化计划。 Almost all the forward deployed artillery can be stored in wellprotected underground emplacements.几乎所有的前沿部署炮兵可以储存在地下wellprotected进驻。 The passive defenses in the forward corps include a large bunker complex to conceal and protect infantry forces, mechanized units, and war matériel stockpiles.被动防御,在推进兵团包括一个大型复杂的掩体,以掩盖和保护步兵部队,机械化单位,和战争物资储存。 >e=tem~/  
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The North Korean Army (NKA) increased from an estimated 263,000 in 1953 to 350,000 in 1968.朝鲜军( nka )增加至26.3万,估计在1953至35.0万,在1968年。 This was accompanied by a series of organizational changes so that by 1968 there were 5 army groups, 19 infantry divisions, 1 surface-to-air missile division, 3 AAA divisions, 1 tank division, and 5 infantry brigades.这是伴随着一系列的组织变化,使1968年有5集团军, 19个步兵师, 1型防空导弹师,三学能评估师,一坦克师,和第5步兵旅。 Additional fire support was provided by two howitzer and two heavy mortar brigades, and one rocket launcher brigade.额外的火力支援提供了两个榴弹炮和二重迫击炮旅,和一个火箭炮旅。 Five tank regiments (four medium and one heavy) completed the major combat elements. 5坦克团( 4中型和重型一)完成了主要作战要素。 Since the Korean War, armor support was improved with the addition of the T-54 medium tank and the JS-2/3 heavy tank.自朝鲜战争中,铠甲的支持是改善加上T型54中等坦克和js - 2 / 3重型坦克。 This improvement had been complemented by an increase in the number of SU-76 self-propelled assault guns.这方面的改善已补充的数目增加了苏- 76型自走式突击枪。 The inclusion of this relatively modern equipment provides the NKA with a potent striking force for rapid exploitation."列入这一相对现代化的装备提供了nka与一个强有力的打击力量迅速剥削“ 。 HS="t3  
Beginning in the late 1970s, North Korea began a major reorganization and modernization of its ground forces.开始,在20世纪70年代末,朝鲜开始了重大重组和现代化建设的,其地面部队。 North Korea began to produce a modified version of the 115mm gunned T-62 tank, which was the Soviet army's main battle tank in the 1960s.朝鲜开始生产改良版的一一五毫米枪杀的T 62坦克,这是与前苏联军队的主战坦克在20世纪60年代。 Based on general trends and photography of armed forces parades, it is clear that North Korea has made considerable modifications to the basic Soviet and Chinese designs in its own production.基于一般的趋势和摄影武装部队游行,这是明确表示,朝鲜方面取得了相当大的修改基本法苏联和中国的设计,在自己的生产。 P3on4c  
In the 1980s, in order to make the army more mobile and mechanized, there was a steady influx of new tanks, self propelled artillery, armored personnel carriers (APCs), and trucks.在20世纪80年代,为了使军队更加机动和机械化,有一个稳定的涌入,新的坦克,自行火炮,装甲运兵车(装甲运兵车) ,和卡车。 The ground forces seldom retire old models of weapons and tend to maintain a large equipment stock, keeping old models along with upgraded ones in the active force or in reserve.地面部队很少退休,旧型号的武器和倾向于维持一个大型设备的股票,保持旧型号随着升级,在积极使用武力或在储备。 The army remains largely an infantry force, although a decade-long modernization program has significantly improved the mobility and firepower of its active forces.军队在很大程度上仍然是一个步兵部队,虽然有十年之久的现代化建设大大提高了流动性和火力的积极力量。 jNaK]  
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Between 1980 and 1992, North Korea reorganized, reequipped, and forward deployed the majority of its ground forces. 1980年至1992年,朝鲜重组, reequipped ,和前瞻性的部署其大部分地面部队。 The army places great emphasis on special operations and has one of the largest special operations forces in the world--tailored to meet the distinct requirements of Korean terrain.军队十分重视特种作战,并已其中一个最大的特种作战部队在世界上-为满足不同的要求,韩国的地形。 Between 1984 and 1992, the army added about 1,000 tanks, over 2,500 APC/infantry fighting vehicles (IFV), and about 6,000 artillery tubes or rocket launchers. 1984年至1992年,陆军增加了大约1000辆坦克,超过2500年的APC /步兵战车( ifv ) ,以及约6000炮兵管或火箭发射器。 In 1992 North Korea had about twice the advantage in numbers of tanks and artillery, and a 1.5-to-1 advantage in personnel over its potential adversaries, the United States-Republic of Korea defenses to the south.在1992年,朝鲜的两倍左右的优势,在人数坦克和大炮,和一个1.5至1的优势,在人员超过其潜在对手,美国-大韩民国防到南方。 Over 60 percent of the army was located within 100 kilometers of the DMZ in mid 1993.超过60 %的军队设在100公里的非军事区在1993年年中。 Iy8Ehwejd  
Although the majority of units remain "straight-leg" infantry forces, that is, lacking significant motorized or mechanized transport, the army contains a significant number of well equipped mechanized units, with about 2,500 APCs.虽然大多数的单位仍然是“直脚”的步兵部队,即是缺乏显着摩托或机械化运输,军队包含大量装备精良的机械化单位,约2500装甲运兵车。 These mobile forces are equipped with a mix of older Soviet-made APCs, some Chinese-made APCs, and some indigenously produced APCs, such as the M-1985.这些流动部队都装备了混合老年人的苏制装甲运兵车,一些中国制造的装甲运兵车,和一些本国生产的装甲运兵车,如米- 1985 。 qI^6}PB  
As of 1996 the main equipment of the North Korean ground forces included over 3,800 tanks including 2,750 T-54/55/59s, 800 new model T-62 and light tanks, and about 250 outdated T-34s.截至1996年的主要设备,朝鲜的地面部队,包括超过3800辆坦克,包括2750 t-54/55/59s , 800个新型号T - 62和轻型坦克,大约有250个过时的T - 34s 。 It was also equipped with more than 2,800 armored vehicles consisting of BTR series and Type M1973.它也配备了2800多辆装甲车组成的全钢载重子午线系列和类型m1973 。 Its artillery forces possessed over 8,300 of the 76.2 mm, 100 mm, 122 mm, 130 mm, 152 mm, and 170 mm howitzers and guns, over 2,700 of the 107 mm, 122 mm, 132 mm, 240 mm multiple rocket launchers, and more than 12,500 anti-aircraft guns.其炮兵部队拥有超过8300的76.2毫米, 100毫米, 122毫米, 130毫米, 152毫米,和170毫米榴弹炮和枪支,超过2700年的107毫米, 122毫米, 132毫米,二四零毫米多重火箭发射器,和超过12500高射炮。 c[3sg  
Probably because of its initial Soviet tutelage and the limited ground attack capability of the air force, great emphasis is placed on using massive artillery firepower.大概是因为其初始苏联的监护和有限的地面攻击能力的空军,伟大的重点放在使用大量的炮兵火力。 North Korean ordnance factories produce a variety of self-propelled guns, howitzers, and gun-howitzers.朝鲜的军械工厂生产的各种自行火炮,榴弹炮,并自行加榴炮。 In the 1980s, North Korea produced a significant amount of self-propelled artillery, mating towed artillery tubes with chassis already in the inventory.在20世纪80年代,朝鲜产生了大量的自行火炮,牵引火炮交配管与底盘已经在清单中。 North Korean strategic thought also seems to be based on the primacy of developing an offensive capability, reflecting an appreciation for firepower probably dating to the Korean War.北朝鲜的战略思考,也似乎是基于首要发展进攻能力,反映了赞赏火力大概可追溯至朝鲜战争。 Further, P'yongyang is willing to invest the time and effort necessary for effective defense of its ground forces from air attack and artillery fire.此外,平壤是愿意投资的时间和精力所必需的有效的防御,其地面部队从空袭和炮击。 jU@qQ@|  
With the exception of the 170mm M-1978 Koksan gun first noted in a parade in 1985, a new turreted self-propelled gun observed in a 1992 parade, and perhaps a few other systems, most artillery was developed from older Soviet and Chinese designs.与例外,该一百七十〇毫米米- 1978年的谷山郡首先指出,在一个操在1985年,一个新的turreted自行火炮,观察在1992年阅兵,也许其他几个系统,最炮兵制定了从旧苏联和中国的设计。 All incorporate proven technologies or components.所有纳入证明的技术或组件。 DN;g2 R`f  
North Korea continues to produce a range of Soviet antitank guns, most of them dating from 1940s and 1950s designs, and ranging in size from 57mm through 100mm.朝鲜继续生产了一系列苏联反坦克枪,他们大多可以追溯到20世纪40年代和20世纪50年代的设计,并在大小不等,从五七毫米通过百毫米。 Infantry units also are armed with Soviet bloc-derived equipment.步兵部队也武装起来的苏联集团的衍生设备。 yJppPIW^  
The North Korean army was not uniformly successful in its 1980s efforts to modernize its forces in support of a high-speed offensive strategy; more needs to be done to update the army's mobility, artillery, and air defense elements.朝鲜军是没有统一的成功,在其20世纪80年代现代化的努力将其部队在支持一个高速进攻性战略;需要做更多的工作,以更新军队的机动性,火炮,防空元素。 North Korea has increased its tank fleet, but incomplete information suggests that it remains based largely on dated Soviet technology with retrofitted indigenous improvements.朝鲜已经增加了坦克车队,但不完整的资料表明,它仍然主要基于过时的苏联技术与加装土著改善。 Although the quality and quantity of mobile anti-aircraft gun systems remains unknown, there is no indication of any mobile surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems other than man-portable systems such as the SA-7 and SA-14 or SA-16 (based on parade photographs) entering the inventory to augment North Korea's static air defense umbrella.虽然质量和数量的移动高射炮系统仍然未知,目前并无迹象显示有任何的移动型防空导弹( SAM )的系统以外的其他单兵携带系统,如的SA - 7和SA - 14或SA服务-16 (基于巡游照片)进入库存,以加强北朝鲜的静态防空保护伞。 Lack of SAM systems could be a major deficiency in the army's tactical air defense capability during mobile offensive operations.缺乏的SAM系统可能是一个重大的不足,在军队的战术防空能力在移动进攻行动。 However, in artillery systems the army appears to have made the most of its limited technological base.然而,在火炮系统军队似乎已作出了最其有限的技术基础。 It has increased the artillery force while maintaining relative quantitative and range superiorities over its potential southern adversary and improving force mobility.它增加了炮兵力量,同时保持相对的数量和范围优势,超过其潜在对手南部和改进部队的流动性。 By the early 1990s the chances that North Korea will further modernize its forces appear limited.由20世纪90年代初的机会,朝鲜将进一步现代化,其势力似乎有限。 The technological level of P'yongyang's industrial base appears to ensure that, with the possible exception of narrow areas of special interest, built-in obsolescence will be unavoidable, regardless of how undesirable.技术水平平壤的工业基地出现,以确保,与可能的例外是狭隘的特别关心的领域,内置在陈旧将是不可避免的,不论如何不可取的。 jC@$D*"J  
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Before the winter 2000 training, some had suggested that North Korea's economic crisis had caused North Korean training to decline considerably.之前, 2000年冬季训练,一些曾暗示,朝鲜的经济危机,造成了北朝鲜的训练相当的跌幅。 Such a decline, in combination with maintenance and support difficulties, would have minimized the conventional threat posed by North Korean forces.这种下降,再加上维护和支持的困难,会尽量减少传统所构成的威胁,朝鲜的力量。 For larger units, most North Korean training is traditionally done during the winter training cycle, but little training went on in the winter of 1999.为较大的单位,大部分北朝鲜训练是传统的做在冬季训练周期,但很少去训练就在冬季1999年。 The winter of 1998 was a more robust training period (though less than historical patterns in some ways).在1998年的冬天是一个更强大的训练期间(虽然少于历史模式在某些方面) 。 c,!Ijn\;(  
The North Korean performance in the winter 2000 training was relatively impressive, suggesting that previous judgments have been premature.北朝鲜的表现,在2000年冬季训练比较令人印象深刻,这表明以前的判断已言之过早。 Immediately following the June 2000 summit, the North Korean People’s Army training cycle in the summer of 2000 was the most extensive ever recorded.在紧接2000年6月首脑会议上,朝鲜人民军训练周期,在2000年夏天,是最广泛的以往任何时候都记录下来。 It was preceded by the most ambitious winter training cycle for the past ten years.这是之前的最雄心勃勃的冬季训练周期为过去十年。 Training levels since 2000 have been record-breaking, with the focus on improving the readiness of major offensive forces.训练水平自2000年以来,已破纪录,与着眼于提高准备就绪的主要进攻力量。 8JJqEkQ  
Recent force improvements include forward repositioning key offensive units, emplacing anti-tank barriers in the forward area, establishing combat positions along major routes between Pyongyang and the Demilitarized Zone, improving coastal defense forces in the forward area, constructing missile support facilities, and procuring air defense weapons.最近的力量改善措施包括提出复位的关键进攻单位, emplacing反坦克障碍,在前进的地区,建立打击沿线的阵地主要路线和平壤之间的非军事区,改善了海防部队在前沿领域,构建导弹支援设施,以及采购空中防卫武器。 Applying lessons from US operations in Europe and Southwest Asia, the North Koreans also modified key facility defenses, dispersed forces, and improved camouflage, concealment, and deception measures.申请的教训,从美国在欧洲的业务和西南亚洲,朝鲜还修改了关键设施的防御,分散力量,并改善了伪装,隐蔽,和欺骗的措施。 8}XtVF;  
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